al-Nakba - the "catastrophe" of 1948

1The UN partition resolution was followed by early December, the first attacks and terrorist acts of the Haganah on Palestinian villages and civilians (Plan Gimmel). The country became increasingly embroiled in military conflicts, which according to the State of Israel proclaimed on 15 May 1948 the Arab states joined. The first Arab-Israeli war ended with victory for the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) on the Arab Liberation Army, 513 Palestinian villages were destroyed by the Israeli army and expelled over 700,000 Palestinians. The defeat of the all-powerful Arab enemy marginalized by Israeli representation of a miracle. In fact, the victory of Israel, however, based on the actual superiority of Haganah and IDF: In the initial stages of the conflict, and even before the entry of the Arab states, was the well organized and militarily experienced underground Jewish organization to one Palestinian society, the central political and military leadership was lacking. After the outbreak of war, the IDF fought against the poorly equipped, on unfamiliar terrain tactically defeated Arab Liberation Army, which was under any central command.

First Intifada


The immediate trigger for the "revolution of the stones", as the intifada (shaking off) is called, was one on 09 December 1987 by an Israeli military load driver induced accident. In Jabaliya refugee camp in the Gaza Strip, the driver drove into several cars, killing four people and wounding several.
In subsequent mass demonstrations led to clashes between Palestinian youths and Israeli occupying army. In the following days and weeks, the Israeli military does not always bring more to the spreading unrest under control. The uprising of Palestinians against their continued oppression and total political disenfranchisement, against land expropriation, settlement and economic exploitation soon gained a name: Intifada. Israel responded with a policy of "iron fist": curfews, mass arrests, torture and deportation followed.
Flag and national emblem

flagFlag and national emblem

The four-tone colors of the Palestinian flag in red, black, white and green is rooted in the religious and historical tradition of Islam. At the same time, the four colors of a particular symbol of Arab colors, which the majority of Arab states have taken Saxon in their national flag.

The Palestinian education system

Since its establishment, the Palestinian government has been working steadily to improve the education-related infrastructure, teacher training, the standardization of curricula and the development of a comprehensive education system. Three ministries are responsible: The Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Higher Education (Higher Education) and the Ministry of Labour. In addition, there is a center for the development of the curriculum. Also in the Palestinian Legislative Council, a committee was established, which deals inter alia with the relevant legislation. Since the Intifada because of the virtually forced school and university closures by the Israeli army, the entire education system has collapsed, has created many private initiatives and NGOs, that is, to be used today to improve the Palestinian education system.

Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was establisPLO_Emblemhed in 1964 and has been the embodiment of the Palestinian national movement. It is a broad national front, or an umbrella organization, comprised of numerous organizations of the resistance movement, political parties, popular organizations, and independent personalities and figures from all sectors of life. The Arab Summit in 1974 recognized the PLO as the “sole and legitimate representative of the Palestinian people” and since then the PLO has represented Palestine at the United Nations, the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries (NAM), the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and in many other fora.


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