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First Intifada


The immediate trigger for the "revolution of the stones", as the intifada (shaking off) is called, was one on 09 December 1987 by an Israeli military load driver induced accident. In Jabaliya refugee camp in the Gaza Strip, the driver drove into several cars, killing four people and wounding several.
In subsequent mass demonstrations led to clashes between Palestinian youths and Israeli occupying army. In the following days and weeks, the Israeli military does not always bring more to the spreading unrest under control. The uprising of Palestinians against their continued oppression and total political disenfranchisement, against land expropriation, settlement and economic exploitation soon gained a name: Intifada. Israel responded with a policy of "iron fist": curfews, mass arrests, torture and deportation followed.

Since the 1930s in the Zionist circles circulating idea of "transfer" of Palestinians from the occupied territories and even from Israel itself was now openly supports in government circles. Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin issued orders to break the bones of young demonstrators. All this could break the resistance of the Palestinians is not. Meanwhile, the entire population of all social classes participated in the uprising. Committees were formed, which not only organized strikes and daily demonstrations and the goods and tax boycott monitored (Palestinians paid during the 20 years of occupation so far over 800 million dollars "occupation tax"), but important social issues - health care, financial assistance for families of prisoners , school education - took over. The decisive factor was the emergence of the "United National Leadership of the Intifada" (VNFI) in the occupied territories in early 1988th This belonged to Fatah and the addition of the Jihad DFLP, PFLP and the Communist Party of Palestine. The VNFI operated from the ground through regularly published pamphlets, which define the strike and demonstration events. The aim of the intifada activists was to end the Israeli occupation and build according to the inalienable rights of a people to self-determination of an independent Palestinian state under the leadership of the PLO.


PLO takes over leadership

The PLO had been in the months before the outbreak of the Intifada, the events in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, followed very closely and created a broad network of organizations that the connection between "inside" and "outside" ensured. Within weeks, they could then take over the leadership of the uprising, giving him a political target direction and create conditions that guaranteed the continuation of the revolt over the years.

On 31 July 1988 gave to King Hussein of Jordan in a televised address his collected since the beginning of the 1950s claim to sovereignty over the West Bank and East Jerusalem. His retreat was a crucial victory for the intifada. A few days later, the PLO that they would take responsibility for the Palestinian occupied territories. At this point a new movement came into the public: Hamas. Designed from the Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood as a mass movement, the organization soon found under feed people in the Gaza Strip, Hebron and Nablus. Hamas rejected a settlement with Israel from a strict and propagated the armed struggle until the final liberation of Palestine. Israel itself had encouraged the establishment of Hamas financially in order to establish itself as a counterweight to the PLO in the occupied territories. But this plan did not work.


Proclamation of the State of Palestine


The intifada was at its peak on 15 November 1988. On this day, the National Council proclaimed on its 19th Meeting in Algiers of an independent Palestinian state with its capital in East Jerusalem. In addition, the National Council recognized the UN partition plan of 1947 (Resolution 181) that gave the armed struggle and declared itself a refusal to hold direct negotiations with Israel on the basis of Resolution 242 ready. So was the part of the PLO's been five years before the celebrated around the world, "Gaza-Jericho Agreement" means an acknowledgment of Israel's right to exist and a commitment to a two-state solution. While an overwhelming number of countries recognized the State of Palestine, Israel was still not able to venture a bold step and also to accept it.

Until the beginning of the Gulf crisis in August 1990 were of Arab, European and American side's peace initiatives under way, but fast in the sand ran - that broke the U.S. only a few months after opening talks with the PLO to pressure Israel, her contacts again . While the failure of the Palestinian peace initiative became apparent, the Israeli policy in the occupied territories to the Palestinians more threatening moves. Also deployed an unprecedented stream of Russian immigrants one - in 1991 their number was more than a million - and encouraged the "Greater Israel" Israeli propaganda on the highest level of government.


First steps to peace negotiations

After the end of the Gulf War, which included spending the Palestinians in the occupied territories because of the strict curfew in their homes and had no gas masks, the U.S. advocated a "new world order." Under the auspices of America and the Soviet Union began after intense mediation of the United States on 30 October 1991 Madrid Peace Conference (October 30, 1991). The delegations from Israel, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan, who also belonged to Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, agreed on bilateral negotiations - to resolve the conflict - and multilateral meetings - on questions of economic cooperation, environment, to clarify water, refugees and arms control. any result were the discussions between Palestinians and Israelis. The latter wrote not only the composition of the Jordanian-Palestinian delegation (Palestinians from East Jerusalem was forbidden to participate), but also sets the negotiating points. Even the victory of Yitzhak Rabin in the parliamentary elections in June 1992, at first nothing changed in the impasse. In December 1992 415 Palestinians were deported to the no man's land between Lebanon and Israel. The intifada was continuing unabated, with the increasingly deteriorating economic situation of the Palestinians, human rights violations, land confiscation and settlement construction continued apace.
In March 1993, the Israeli government an almost complete closure of the territories, which is still continuing and the vast majority of the Palestinian population's access to East Jerusalem and the holy sites impossible. Thus achieved the Palestinian-Israeli contacts in early 1993 its lowest point. On the initiative of the Norwegian Foreign Minister Johan Holst began on 20 Strictly in Norway in January 1993 a first round of secret negotiations held between Israel and the PLO. In February and March were in Sarpborg / Norway elaborated draft of a declaration of principles. After the PLO rejected a revised version (May 1993), instructed Foreign Minister Shimon Peres Joel Singer (legal advisor in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and Uri Savir with further negotiations, the talks at an official level to give. Finally, Palestinians and Israelis came through the mediation of Holst to an agreement (August 1993). In a secret ceremony in the "Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government" was signed (August 19, 1993). A month later exchanged Yasser Arafat and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin of letters, which included mutual recognition (9th - 10th September 1993). The first step was done. With the official signing of the Declaration of Principles on 13 September 1993 by Mahmoud Abbas, Executive Committee member and close adviser to Yasser Arafat, and Foreign Minister Shimon Peres led the peace process in motion.





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